Wednesday, 24 February 2016

Pengertian Lengkap Preposition

10.-ind.k.vi_.1.17-penyusunan_rangkuman-19721_200x200Preposition adalah sebuah kata yang menunjukkan hubungan antara satu dengan lain hal, seperti menghubungkan kata benda, kata ganti. preposition juga digunakan untuk menghubungkan frasa dengan kata lain dalam satu kalimat, kata ganti, maupun kata benda. Preposition biasanya terletak di bagian awal atau di depan kata ganti atau kata benda. Preposition bisa digabungkan (berpasangan) dengan frase atau kata, preposition yang demikian disebut sebagai object of preposition (objek preposisi)

B. Memilih preposition yang tepat

Untuk memilih preposisi pastikan Anda memilih preposisi yang tepat. Periksa bahwa itu masuk akal dalam kalimat Anda atau cobalah untuk memikirkan alternatif yang mungkin lebih menarik, tapi masih berarti sama.

Mengapa ini penting? Bagaimana bisa mengetahui preposisi dapat membantu dalam menulis?

Penulis kadang-kadang salah dalam menentukan objek dari preposition untuk subjek kalimat dan kemudian menggunakan kata kerja yang salah.
Untuk menentukan bentuk kata kerja yang benar, penulis harus tahu apa subjek kalimat tersebut.

- Preposition juga dapat membantu penulis menentukan kata-kata untuk memanfaatkan dalam judul karya. Preposisi tidak dikapitalisasi jika mereka jatuh di tengah judul.
"A Rose for Emily"
- Preposition juga dapat membantu penulis tahu di mana untuk menempatkan koma tertentu dalam kalimat. Jika kalimat dimulai dengan frase preposisional, maka koma ditempatkan pada akhir frase:
Pada 1492, Columbus menemukan Amerika.

C. Rules for Prepositions IN, ON, AT, TO

Basic Rules

A. AT a time

B. ON a day

C. IN a month (season, year, decade, century)

D. AT an address

E. ON a street

F. IN an area (neighborhood, town, borough, state, country, continent, ocean, the world, the solar system, the universe)

Ada 3 jenis preposition :

1. Place of Prepositions

2. Time of Prepositions

3. Direction of Prepositions

a. Some prepositions show where something happens. They are called prepositions of place.

Examples:-

- Sanny was sitting under a tree.

- There’s a wooden floor underneath the carpet.

- Some geese flew over their house.

- John and Sarah were hiding inside the wardrobe.

- There was a tree beside the river.

- I have a friend who lives in America.

b. Some prepositions show when something happens. They are called prepositions of time.

Prepositions time: In, On, At, By

YEAR: In

• I was born in 1982.

MONTH: In

• The wedding will be in April.

WEEK: In

• We are in the sixth week of

the semester.

DAY: On

• The party is on Friday.

HOUR: At

• Arrive at 3 p.m.

Deadlines: No matter the time frame, use “by” with due dates:

• Your papers are due by 5

p.m./Tuesday/April/2009.

Examples:-

- School starts at nine o’clock.

- We’re going to the zoo on Saturday.

- No, you can’t watch a video. It’s past your bedtime already.

- I visited my grandparents during the summer.

- You must finish the work by Friday.

- I’ll do my homework before dinner.

c. Some prepositions show where something is going. They are called prepositions of direction.

Examples:-

- The boys chased after each other.

- The football rolled down the hill.

- A man was walking his dog along the riverbank.

- The freeway goes right through the city.

- We were travelling towards Miami.

Contoh lain:

At

located at a spesific place

- Clara studied at the library all day.

- I left my homework at home.

- She arrived at the party early.

In

Located within boundaries

(enclosed):

- The fans are in the stadium.

- There are ostriches in that field!

- We live in California.

- We were in the car when it happened.

This also applies to metaphorical boundaries:

- She works in the field of engineering.

On

Located on a surface (not enclosed):

- I left my homework on the kitchen table.

- Soccer players practice on the field.

(not enclosed)

- Cowboys live out on the range.

Prepositions of Direction: To, Into, Onto To

Moving toward a specific place:

- We are moving to Chicago next month.

- Janice flew from Los Angeles to Mexico City.

- She walks to school.

Into

Moving to the inside of an enclosed space:

“In” and “into” can be used interchangeably with some verbs, and

still keep the meaning of the sentence the same:

- The dog jumped into the pond.

- The dog jumped in the pond.

! Otherwise, “in” and “into” have distinct meanings:

- Rosa poured the water into the cup. (action)

- There is water in the cup. (position)

! She hurried in to buy the milk. (preposition with infinitive)

Onto

Moving toward a surface:

! “On” and “onto” can often be used interchangeably and still keep

the meaning of the sentence the same:

- The book fell onto the floor.

- The book fell on the floor.

She tossed the papers onto the coffee table. (action)

- The papers are on the coffee table. (position)

She turned the TV on to watch the show. (prp. w/ infinitive)

Macam-macam preposition

Preposition satu kata

about

above

across

after

against

along

among

around

as at

before

behind

below beneath beside between beyond

but by

concerning

considering

despite

down

during

except

for

from in inside

into

like

near

next

of

off

on

onto

out outside over

past

plus

regarding

respecting

round

since through throughout

till

to

toward under

underneath

unlike

until

up

upon

with

within without

Preposition dua kata atau lebih

as well as because of

by way of

due to

except for

in addition to

in front of

in place of

in regard to

in spite of instead of

next to

on account of out of

with regard to

D. 20 Special Rules for Prepositions IN, ON, AT, TO

look AT and listen TO

2. TO with verbs of desire, necessity, expectation

love TO, like TO, hate TO, want TO, need TO, have TO, hope TO, expect TO

3. AT night

IN the morning, IN the afternoon, IN the evening

4. ON transportation

ON the bus, ON the train, ON the subway, ON a plane, ON a jet, ON a ship,

ON a bicycle, ON a motorcycle, ON a surfboard, ON a skateboard

BUT

IN a car, IN a taxi, IN a small boat, IN an elevator, IN a helicopter

5. AT an intersection (where two streets cross)

AT Broadway and 42nd Street, AT Fifth Avenue and 34th Street

6. ON an island, ON a farm, ON a college campus, ON earth, ON a planet

7. expressions that mean sometimes use different prepositions:

from time TO time, ON occasion, once IN a while

8. IN a park, IN a yard, AT a playground

9. ON anything flat

ON a plate, ON the wall, ON the floor, ON a shelf, ON the blackboard,

ON a table, ON a desk, ON the stove, ON your face, a hat ON your head

10. IN a room or anything smaller

IN the closet, IN a drawer, IN a cup, IN a bowl, IN a glass, IN your

mouth, ideas IN your head, a look IN your eye, a ribbon IN your hair

11. TO when moving from point A TO point B

go TO school, drive TO work, take a trip TO Boston, take your kids TO

school, fly TO London, walk TO the library, bring your dog TO the vet

12. ON a/an [adjective] morning, afternoon, evening, night, day

ON a cold afternoon, ON a sunny morning, ON a rainy evening,

ON a Saturday night, ON a spring day, ON a special night

13. ON vacation, ON the weekend, ON a trip, ON a picnic, ON your break,

ON a leave of absence, ON your lunch hour

14. IN the water swimming (or drowning), ON the water boating

15. AT the beach (the whole place), lie ON the beach (=ON the sand), play IN the sand

16. ON anything like a line

ON the coast, stand ON line, ON the border, ON the side, ON a team/committee

17. ON forms of communication

ON TV, ON the radio, ON the phone, ON the fax machine, ON the computer, ON

a disk, ON a CD, ON a hard drive, ON a channel, ON a screen

18. a report or news article ON the economy (ABOUT the economy)

19. ON time for an event or activity: Come to the meeting ON time. Be in class ON time.

20. IN time (or too late) TO do something: Get to the station IN time TO catch a train.

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